A Brief Discussion Of Adderall’s Role In Kidney Toxicity

What Is Adderall?

Adderall is a type of drug resulting from a combination of amphetamine salts commonly used in the treatment of ADHD due to its stimulating effect on the brain. These two drugs that make up Adderall are amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. They stimulate the brain thus leading to excessive reactions and control of nerve impulses. With regards to Adderall’s relation to kidney toxicity, while typically the phenomenon does not happen, in extremely high dosages, or when the drug is abused, kidney pain can occur. If you take a dosage that is too high for your age range, body weight, overall

Adderall History

Adderall is was first brought into production in the name of Obetrol. The original form of Adderall tablet was a multi-dose tablet that was specifically designed to release its contents. Years later, Teva Pharmaceuticals, a drug company bought the rights of the present Adderall from Shire Pharmaceuticals. It, then, released the drug in the market for the very first time.

How To Use Adderall Properly

  • Oral – Adderall can be used orally by swallowing through the mouth. This is usually done in the morning after waking up according to the doctors prescription. There are usually two ways of conducting this administration. This can be through Immediate Release or Extended Release.
  • Immediate Release refers to the prescription that you start with the first time you are taking the drug. On the other hand, extended release refers to the prescription that you will use for administration for maintenance purposes. In low, normal dosages, Adderall kidney toxicity rarely ever occurs.
  • Intravenous – The user takes the drug which is administered through an injection
  • Insufflated – The tablets are converted into powder form and then blown into the body cavities of the user.


Adderall is commonly used as a stimulant in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It works by stimulating the brain hence controlling nerve impulses which then help to regulate behavior and attention. It influences the general behavior of neurotransmitters in the brain.

It is approved for use among children aged 3 years and above. It is usually used when all other stimulants have not registered any remarkable improvement to patient. A combination is administered which includes dextroamphetamine and amphetamine salts. They help to make the treatment of ADHD effective. At normal doses, kidney toxicity can occur even in cases of normal, prescription-strength use.

Adderall works by curbing the symptoms of ADHD (e.g hyperactivity, lack of attention and impulsive behavior). By acting as stimulants, the two medicines that make up Adderall help to improve an individuals’ behavior within a short time after taking a dosage.


Some of the benefits of using Adderall are:

  • It is used in the treatment of ADHD disorder
  • It makes one be more active
  • It increases ones cognitive retention power
  • It helps to reduce weight especially for those suffering from obesity
  • It aids in concentration

Recommended Dosage

This varies largely depending on the age of the patient and the type of disorder being treated.

Adult Dosage

Tablets: First dose – 10mg daily swallowed after waking up early in the morning. For Extended Use, there will be an increase of 10mg on a weekly basis. 1sst dosage after waking up and then an addition of 1 or 2 at 4 to 6 hours interval.

Dosage for attention deficit disorder is 20mg per day for adults

Pediatric Dosage

3-5 years – 2.5 mg on a daily basis orally early in the morning and an increase of 2.5 g weekly for maintenance

6 years – 5mg daily upon waking up and an increment of 5mg, weekly interval

6-12 years – 5-10 mg every day orally after waking up and increasing the dosage by between 5-10 mg

13-17 years – 10mg per day orally. The dosage will be increased to 20 gm every day for maintenance

Side Effects

Some of the known side effects of using Adderall are:

  • Loss of weight
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stomachache
  • Kidney Toxicity
  • Headache
  • A sudden change of mood
  • Drying of mouth
  • Nervousness
  • Dizziness
  • Increased heartbeat
  • Lack of sleep (insomnia)


Research has proven that Adderall which is a combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, acts as a stimulant to the brain. This increases brain impulses which help to control the behavior of an individual especially those suffering from ADHD.

Research has proven that although Adderall is prescribed for people with ADHD. On the contrary, its use has extended to so many other people that do not have the disorder. Most college students are using this drug to improve their cognitive ability and retention power as they study. Research has also proven that other young people simply take the drug so that they can become active especially when socializing. Research has also proven that Adderall has an effect on weight reduction. It causes weight loss and thus making it appropriate for the obese.

Research has also proven that many business executives are using the drug to help them in key decision making because of its ability to stimulate the cognitive aspect of the brain. Even though the prescription of this drug is limited to a certain category of people with DHDP, research has proven that indeed the drug is addictive. For this reason, anybody who attempts to take might find it difficult to stop because of the effect of addiction.

Adderall vs Ritalin


  • They are both involve stimulants for the brain (central nervous system)
  • They both work by speeding up the transmission of impulses through the CNS thus increasing the brain activity of norepinephrine and dopamine
  • The two drugs produce almost similar side effects to the user which include loss of appetite, a mouth that is dry, increased heartbeat, dizziness, and insomnia.
  • The two drugs can be found in both long acting and short acting formulations.
  • Both are used in the treatment of ADHD.
  • They are both available in similar forms like tablets and extended-release capsules
  • They can both be taken orally
  • Both drugs should not be taken during pregnancy because they will have a negative impact on the unborn


  • Adderall is manufactured by Shire Pharmaceuticals while Ritalin is manufactured by Norvatis.
  • They differ in trade names.
  • The dependency liability of Adderall is higher than that of Ritalin
  • The withdrawal symptoms of Adderall include tiredness, lack of sleep, irritability, and depression while those of Ritalin are irritability, psychosis and worsening of ADHD symptoms temporarily.
  • Adderall is a mixture of two amphetamine salts as its ingredients while Ritalin is composed of Methylphenidate as the ingredient.

Adderall vs Provigil


  • Both are similar because they were both approved for medical use around the same period in the 1990s.
  • They are both used in the treatment of a condition called narcolepsy.
  • Both drugs are considered to be powerful in conditions in which they are specifically designed to treat. For example, Provigil is best at enhancing vigilance (staying awake), especially during the daytime. Similarly, Adderall is considered to be the best treatment for ADHD where other stimulants have failed.
  • Both drugs are being used to enhance the brain working capacity especially among students in the universities and other people occupying the top ranks in business to aid their thinking for proper decision making.
  • Both drugs affect almost similar hormones in the body. For example, Provigil affects histamine and dopamine. Adderall primary affects dopamine and norepinephrine.


  • Provigil is eugeroic while Adderall is a physiological stimulant
  • Provigil is approved to be used for treating a sleeping disorder where one sleeps excessively during the day while Adderall is approved to be used for treating ADHD.
  • Provigil ingredients consist of modafinil while Adderall ingredients are composed of stimulant medicines such as dextroamphetamine at 75% and levoamphetamine at 25%. They are both amphetamine salts.
  • Dosage for the two drugs differ. Provigil dosage tends to be a bit higher while that of Adderall is limited and it is given in different ways i.e. e extended release. There are an initial dosage and an increment for maintenance unlike in the case of Provigil.
  • In terms of manufacturing, Provigil is manufactured by Cephanol Inc., while Adderall is manufactured by Shire Pharmaceuticals.
  • In terms of legal status, Provigil belongs to Schedule IV in the U.S. while Adderall belongs to Schedule II in the U.S.
  • In terms of how they work, Provigil functions by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine and increasing the action of histamine level in the hypothalamus part of the brain. On the other hand, Adderall works by increasing the levels and inhibiting the reuptake of stimulatory neurotransmitters like norepinephrine and dopamine.
  • Provigil’s half-life is 12 hours while that of Adderall is 11 to 13 hours.
  • Provigil’s effect last for between 6 to 8 hours while that of Adderall is 4 to 6 hours for immediate release and 12 hours for extended release.
  • Provigil was approved for use in 1998 while Adderall was approved in 1996.

Legal Status

Adderrall is a Schedule II drug (US) under the US Controlled Substance Act and is Prescribed Only

Final Thoughts

It’s quite evident that indeed Adderall is such a powerful drug. It has a very great impact on the central nervous system going by the way it stimulates the brain to control the individual behavior. While it is true that Adderall helps in treating people with DHDP disorder, it is also quite clear that even those who are not prescribed to use the drug are taking. This is wrong and quite unhealthy extent. Besides, it has an addictive effect on the user. If this trend continues, given the cognitive advantages associated with Adderall, millions of people all over the world will begin to use it for non-medical reasons. In no time, it will be ranked among the most commonly abused drugs. Measures need to be put in place so that this very important drug can be used correctly and appropriately.



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